From the Beginning

16 billion years ago

The start of the cosmos, according to dialogue in VOY “Good Shepherd”. This doesn’t reflect current thinking, and might just be a mistake. On the other hand, I haven’t flagged it as a problem, because scientists in “Star Trek” aren’t limited by the speed of light. It is just about certain that they can study more than what we regard as the “visible” universe in terms of space. They may also be able to see more of time, too.
Comment: I’m not at all sure I’ve got this right. I’d never even have considered it (and I did have this flagged up as wrong) before I read Max Tegmark’s book Our Mathematical Universe. Whether that recommends the book to you is impossible for me to say.

The Beginning

13.7 billion years ago

According to the latest calculations, it’s this long since the Big Bang, and the start of everything, at least as far as our local space and time is concerned. Quinn takes Voyager back to the earliest stages of the Universe in VOY “Death Wish”.

13.6997 billion years ago
Around 300,000 years after the Big Bang, the first atoms start to form.

13.5 billion years ago
By the time 200 million years have passed, the first stars are coming into existence.

12.5 billion years ago
The first galaxies begin to form.

11 billion years ago
Quasars become numerous. Although astronomers can still see many today, it’s because they’re so distant in time and space. The last true quasars went out about a billion years ago.
Comment: The “quasar-like” object Murasaki 312 encountered in TOS “The Galileo Seven” isn’t a true quasar. It’s been suggested that the object is a “microquasar,” a radio-emitting X-ray binary system. If there is such an object fairly nearby in our Galaxy, it is currently undiscovered.

10 billion years ago
By now, most of the atoms larger than hydrogen and helium that are found in the Solar System (and the Earth, and you) have been formed inside stars.

Almost 9 billion years ago

The Black Cluster visited by Enterprise in TNG “Hero Worship” is created when hundreds of proto-stars collapse in close proximity. Data gives an estimate of the Cluster’s age in the story.

More than 4.6 billion years ago

According to the Guardian of Forever in TOS “The City on the Edge of Forever” its world is already dead by the time our Sun begins shining, and it has waited longer even than this to be asked a question.
Comment: That really is a very, very long time.

4.6 billion years ago
The Solar System and Earth form, according to our current knowledge.

More than 4 billion years ago

According to TNG “The Chase”, a mysterious race of aliens travels through this part of the Galaxy, somehow “programming” primordial sludge with the blueprint for humanoid life, and a dinky promotional video. Doctor Crusher guesses at “over four billion years ago.” If it wasn’t the aliens in TNG “The Chase”, who was it?
Comment: I don’t like this story. As I will have occasion to say a number of times in relation to other episodes of “Star Trek”, it ignores what we know about evolution. For a show that claims to promote a scientific viewpoint, biology often gets very poor treatment.

4 billion years ago

According to dialogue in TOS “Who Mourns For Adonais?” The planet Pollux IV forms about now.
Continuity: The star Pollux or Beta Geminorum, is a real one. Astronomers have calculated its age (and presumably the age of any prospective planets in orbit around it) as 724 million years, rather than 4 billion. Since the star is referred to by both names, then the current guesses must be completely wrong, or the planet is considerably older than the star (in other words a rogue planet was “captured” by Pollux at some point) or Enterprise’s sensors are playing up that week.
Comment: You may think the possibility of a 724 million year old star capturing a 4 billion year old planet is high enough to be a plausible explanation. How such a captured planet would find itself in a stable orbit, which also gives Earthlike conditions on its surface, is much more difficult to explain, although the story is dealing with gods.

3.9 billion years ago
The Late Heavy Bombardment creates the “seas” on the Moon. As I’m sure you’ll already know, the dark patches on the surface of the Moon named as seas are really lava flows.

At least 3.55 billion years ago

Life appears on Earth. In TNG “All Good Things…” Q and Captain Picard are present at that very moment. Q says it’s 3½ billion years ago, and that’s a close approximation to the current best guess. Although more recent studies suggest that this date could be pushed forward to 4.28 billion years ago. That’s still millions of years after the Earth formed, but the new figure does suggest that life arises very quickly in any suitable environment.
Comment: Controversially, the very first spark of life is technically French. I’d also like to point out that the meddling aliens pre-programming DNA from TNG “The Chase” are conspicuous by their absence, although fairness does force me to say that the “pre-programming” is speculated to have been built into life from the very beginning, raising the possibility that the “seeding” of Earth preceded the emergence of life, possibly by millions of years. Although how that would actually work is still a mystery.

Approximately 3.25 billion years ago
Recent research suggests that a giant asteroid hit the Earth, affecting the entire planet’s surface.

Around 3 billion years ago
Plate tectonics starts, creating the first continents.

2.45 billion years ago
“Great Oxidation Event” on Earth, where a breathable atmosphere began to form.

2 billion years ago

According to Q in TNG “Qpid”, a civilisation flourishes on planet Tagus III.

1 billion years ago
On Earth, multicellular life is just appearing at about this time. These are the earliest known fossil remains, but a statistical analysis of DNA completed recently suggests that this date could be as far back as 2.33 billion years ago, in other words almost as soon as oxygen was available.

850 million years ago
The climate on Earth becomes drastically cooler, leading to a “snowball” Earth.

800 million years ago
There is some geological evidence that a particularly large volcano might have caused the Earth to “flip” on its axis.

635 million years ago
Another extreme ice age, when the entire Earth might have been became a frozen ice planet.

535 million years ago
The “Cambrian Explosion.” This may be a huge increase in the kinds of life on Earth, or the development of hard body parts by animals, making it more likely they would form fossils.

465 million years ago
Plant life begins to colonise the land.

443 million years ago
Much of the life on Earth is wiped out, possibly by a burst of gamma radiation from a nearby supernova. There is also evidence for another severe ice age.

“Over 400 million years ago”

According to VOY “Distant Origin”, an ancient type of amphibian called Eryops lived on Earth, and is described as the last common ancestor of both cold-blooded and warm-blooded creatures. Voyager’s computer is able to say that the most developed form of cold-blooded life that evolved from Eryops was the hadrosaur. The date for Eryops is given as the “Devonian Era” (more correctly a “period,” currently estimated to have lasted from around 420 to 360 million years ago), making the assertion that Eryops lived “over 400 million years ago” in the story correct, at least in terms of geologic periods.
Continuity: There really was a genus of prehistoric amphibians called Eryops. The information I found says that they lived around 300 million years ago. All the stuff about “common ancestors” and hadrosaurs does not reflect contemporary scientific thought, and is very possibly not true.

400 million years ago
Insects begin colonising the land.

375 million years ago
The first larger land animals begin to develop.

320 million years ago
The first reptiles appear on Earth.

300 to 175 million years ago
The last time that there was only one giant supercontinent on Earth, Pangaea.

252 million years ago
Almost all the life on Earth is wiped out at the end of the Permian Era, in the biggest mass extinction known. The best current guess is that it was triggered by a massive volcanic eruption. Recent investigations have suggested that temperatures in the equatorial regions became extremely high, delaying the recovery of the Earth’s biosphere for millions of years.

220 million years ago
The earliest mammal remains date from this period.

201 million years ago
There is a mass extinction at the end of the Triassic and the start of the Jurassic eras. Many species of cold-blooded predators became extinct, with the notable exception of crocodiles, still with us today.

160 million years ago
The earliest fossils of birds are dated to about this time.

130 million years ago
Flowering plants develop.

Upper Cretaceous
Approximately 100 million to around 66 million years ago
The geological period when the hadrosaurs lived. VOY “Distant Origin” suggests that hadrosaurs evolved from an earlier amphibian called Eryops, and then further evolved to become an intelligent species. The hadrosaurs are real, the rest is quite unlikely.

Over 87 million years ago

The inhabitants of the D’Arsay star system send out an interstellar probe, that leaves their star system some 87 million years before TNG “Masks”. It is eventually encountered and accidentally triggered by Enterprise in January 2371.

Approximately 65 million years ago

The last of the dinosaurs die out, possibly as the direct result of an asteroid impact that happened at this time, known as the K-T Event. In ENT “Azati Prime” Captain Archer says that it was a comet impact, but he also refers to the dinosaurs as “reptiles.”

VOY “Distant Origin” speculates that a colony of hadrosaurs on a remote “lost” continent survive the extinction. They evolve into intelligent beings and then they migrate across the Galaxy. In reality, there is no evidence that anything like this happened, or could ever have happened.

Over 50 million years ago

An amphibious creature that lives on either Earth or Betazed becomes extinct, according to Data in TNG “Genesis”. Deanna Troi “de-evolves” into one.

60 to 55 million years ago
The first primates appear.

40 million years ago
In reality, it’s to around this time that the earliest fossil remains of whales have been dated.

32 to 25 million years ago
Some plants develop improved “C4” photosynthesis.

20 million years ago

According to a Voth scientist in VOY “Distant Origin”, denying that the Voth are indigenous to the Delta Quadrant is denying “20 million years of history.” That suggests there is evidence of their presence in the quadrant for at least that long.
13 to 7 million years ago
The first primate ancestors of humans, “hominins” appear.

12 million years ago

The middle to late Miocene era. The Whale Probe in “Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home” could have paid its first visit to Earth any time after this, since it’s about the time whales reached their modern forms. Mr. Spock says that whales are 10 million years older than man in ”Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home”. I’m not sure that it fits entirely with our current understanding of human evolution, but that does depend on exactly what Spock’s referring to, and whether there’s been any adjustments to the figures by the 23rd century. It’s certainly a fair ballpark estimation.

4 million years ago
The first identifiably human creatures lived at around this time.

Approximately 4 million to 2 million years ago
The fossil evidence suggests this is the time Australopithecus lived. Although it’s by no means certain that they were direct ancestors of modern humans, they are early relations. Commander Riker “de-evolves” into something Data suggests might be an Australopithecus in TNG “Genesis”.

“Millions of years ago”

According to the Organians in TOS “Errand of Mercy”, they had physical bodies millions of years ago, but developed beyond the need for them.

2 million years ago
Marine extinction on Earth, possibly triggered by radiation from another supernova relatively nearby.

1.8 million years ago

Humans reach the stage where they walk fully upright, at least until an older fossil turns up.

If Captain Picard’s comment in TNG “Ensign Ro” is to be believed, then Bajoran civilisation was already flourishing at this time. This is not terribly plausible, especially since walking erect seems to be one of the most important divergences between humans and the great apes, with the evidence suggesting that there were ancestors of humans already walking upright over 5 million years ago. Although it isn’t what was said, it makes more sense to assume that Bajoran civilisation predates the emergence of modern man, making it a very slightly less mind-boggling 200,000+ years old.

About 1 million years ago

The ruins surrounding the Guardian of Forever are “10,000 centuries old” in TOS “The City on the Edge of Forever”. This is a lot less time than the Guardian has been waiting to be asked a question, but perhaps the estimated age of the ruins is rather spectacularly on the low side?

600,000 years ago

The T’Kon Empire collapses and vanishes from history, according to Data in TNG “The Last Outpost”. The civilisation’s sun becomes unstable in the “Age of Makto,” leading to a supernova and the end of the T’Kon. Exactly how the T’Kon’s eras correspond to our time measurements or even whether the Empire’s collapse happened in the Age of Makto isn’t absolutely certain, since Portal interrupts Data before he finishes his explanation.

“6,000 centuries” ago, the people of Arret were exploring and colonising the Galaxy. It is quite possible that they visit the planet Vulcan, since Mister Spock says their presence would “explain certain elements of Vulcan prehistory.” Sargon explains all this in TOS “Return to Tomorrow”. Correctly, Doctor Mulhall says that the fossil record on Earth suggests that humans arose here quite independently, and aren’t related to Sargon’s people.

“Half a million years ago”

Its star has been fading steadily for half a million years according to Mister Spock in TOS “What Are Little Girls Made Of?”, ultimately turning the planet Exo III into an ice world.

At approximately this time, the planet Arret loses all its atmosphere in a cataclysm, according to TOS “Return to Tomorrow”. Captain Kirk says the world has been destroyed and dead for at least half a million years. Sargon’s underground vault is also this old, and the disaster appears to have been caused by the inhabitants of the planet themselves. It should be noted that “Arret” appears nowhere in the broadcast story. The planet name was taken from an earlier version of the script and first appeared in the Star Trek Concordance.

“Thousands of centuries ago”

The Talosians fight a terrible war, and the surface of the planet becomes uninhabitable. The survivors retreat underground, and become addicted to dreams, as explained by Vina in TOS “The Menagerie”.

This is also the best guess I can make for the time of the discovery of fire on Earth, since it’s impossible to really find out. Certainly, the use of fire was very widespread by around 125,000 years ago.

The organic and mechanical life form that will eventually become known as the Borg has been developing for thousands of centuries, according to Guinan in TNG “Q Who?”

200,000 years ago

The Iconians had a vast interstellar empire, according to DS9 “To the Death”. It is also the time it was destroyed by orbital bombardment, according to TNG “Contagion”.

The bioplasmic space creature in VOY “Bliss” is at least this old.

The time of the very first modern humans, according to our current understanding.

More than 100,000 years ago

Over 100,000 years before VOY “Thirty Days”, the field reactor holding together the water planet was constructed.

100,000 years ago

Sensor readings suggest that the relay station in VOY “Hunters” was constructed around now.

75,000 to 70,000 years ago
Sometime in this period, there was an enormous volcanic eruption on the island of Sumatra. There were worldwide climatic effects, and it has been suggested that humanity came close to being wiped out. The hard evidence to absolutely confirm the elaborate speculations surrounding what is often called the Toba eruption has so far not been discovered.

Approximately 70,000 years ago
According to recent research, a star passed by, less than a light year away from the Sun. It was only a very small star, so it is unlikely to have been visible from Earth, let alone have any effect on this planet, or any other in the Solar System.

50,000 years ago

50,000 Earth years before TOS “Let That Be Your Last Battlefield”, Commissioner Bele begins his pursuit of Lokai. By the time he catches him, their entire civilisation will be long dead.

45,000 years ago

45,000 years before VOY “Tattoo”, more aliens, called the Sky Spirits this time, intervene in the development of humans. They are supposedly responsible for a sense of adventure, desire to explore and ecological awareness; this change to humans leads to the original colonisation of the Americas.

“Hundreds of centuries ago”

The Progenitors construct the Custodian on Aldea, according to TNG “When the Bough Breaks”.

Approximately 40,000 to around 30,000 years ago

Modern humans and Neanderthals live side by side in Europe. It’s referred to in ENT “Dear Doctor”, where the commonly accepted timespan is summarised as “35,000 years ago.”

“Over 30,000 years ago”

An artifact is created in what will become the ancient Bajoran city of B’hala, intended for the Emissary. Koral estimates the length of time in DS9 “The Reckoning”.
Continuity: To fit in with DS9 “Rapture”, I think it’ll have to be quite a bit more than 30,000 years.

Approximately 30,000 years ago

In the Gamma Quadrant, the Verath system’s civilisation is at its height, according to Vash in DS9 “Q-Less”.

Approximately 25,000 years ago

The original inhabitants of what will later become known as the city of B’hala abandon the area, according to Koral in DS9 “The Reckoning”.
Continuity: There seems to be a problem with the ancient city of B’hala. The location has been lost for 20,000 years, according to DS9 “Rapture”, but the timescale laid out by Koral in DS9 “The Reckoning” doesn’t really match up to that. The original inhabitants of an unnamed city abandon the site about 25,000 years ago. Their ruins predate the Temple of B’hala by 10,000 years. The abandoned city is covered by sediment, and then B’hala is built on top of that. Admittedly, 5,000 years is a long time, but unless the artifact discovered in DS9 “The Reckoning” is a lot older than the “over 30,000 years” suggested, I don’t see how there’s the time. I would speculate:
20,000 years ago: The location of the city is lost.
21,000 years ago: The latest B’hala might have been inhabited, 1,000 years before?
24,000 years ago: The founding of B’hala, on the ruins of the earlier settlement, 1,000 years after that was abandoned?
25,000 years ago: The original inhabitants abandon their settlement.
31,000 to 34,000 years ago: 10,000 years before the buildings in B’hala, the ancient ruins with the artefact are constructed.

Assuming that there are 25 years to a generation, “almost 1,000 generations” before VOY “Tattoo”, the Sky Spirits have finished their work on Earth.

22,000 years ago

The first archaeological expedition travels to Tagus III, according to TNG “Qpid”. It’s the first of 947 recorded expeditions, of which only 74 will make significant finds.

20,000 years ago

The site of the ancient Bajoran city of B’hala is lost, according to DS9 “Rapture”.

Over 12,000 years ago

The Master of Tarquin Hill made the Kurlan naiskos Captain Picard keeps in his ready room. He provides a date for the item in TNG “The Chase”, and said it had been made in the Kurlan Third Dynasty. If Picard is correct (he has a variable record, in spite of his huge enthusiasm for archaeology), then he implies that the Kurlan Fifth Dynasty is around three centuries after the Third, which will still be around 12,000 years ago.
Comment: It’s been pointed out that after making a huge fuss of the thing in TNG “The Chase”, Picard simply slings it away at the end of “Star Trek: Generations”. He probably never liked it, but was too polite to say.

Approximately -9500
The first clear evidence of deliberate agriculture dates from this time.

Approximately -9000
The city of Jericho was first settled. The site is still inhabited today, although the claim that it is the oldest continuously inhabited town on Earth isn’t strictly correct, since Jericho was abandoned several times.

The start of the Vulcan Era

1st Z’at, 1 V.E.; Monday 1st February, -8136

Assuming there are no intervening major calendar reforms, this would be the first day of the Vulcan Calendar by my calculation. What event the Vulcan Era commemorates is anyone’s guess. It could possibly be a fortuitously early synchronisation of the cycles of the Vulcan calendar, and have no historical importance at all.

“Over 10,000 years ago”

Over 10,000 years before TOS “For the World is Hollow, and I have Touched the Sky”, construction begins on the asteroid ship Yonada.

Over 10,000 years is the estimated age of a path on the Mikhal outpost visited by Voyager in VOY “Darkling”, first cut by unknown aliens.

“10,000 years ago”

The Organians start using a silicon virus to assess whether species are advanced enough for First Contact, according to ENT “Observer Effect”.

Doctor McCoy estimates that Vaal’s people have been serving him for at least this long in TOS “The Apple”, and quite possibly longer.

10,000 years before TOS “For the World is Hollow and I Have Touched the Sky”, the sun of the Fabrini system goes nova, and Yonada is launched.

10,000 years before TOS “Spock’s Brain”, the previous Controller was installed on Sigma Draconis VI. This figure is based on Kara’s estimation that each Controller will last 10,000 years. If Spock is correct in thinking that the previous Controller was the first, then this is also about the time the Ice Age begins on the planet.

Over the past 10,000 years, nine Orbs have appeared in the skies of Bajor, according to Kai Opaka in DS9 “Emissary”. My calculations place the start of this period about 14 centuries before the start of the Bajoran calendar era, although the Kai might not be speaking that precisely. In addition to the Orbs, there is definite evidence of the Wormhole Aliens influencing Bajoran society much further back in time, at least another 20,000 years, based on the artifact discovered in DS9 “The Reckoning”.

Gint, the first Grand Nagus of the Ferengi codifies the Rules of Acquisition. There’s a reference to “10,000 years of Ferengi tradition” in DS9 “Bar Association” and Gint is established in DS9 “Body Parts”.

Bajoran archaeologists begin searching for the lost city of B’hala, ten thousand years before DS9 “Rapture”.

10,000 years before DS9 “The Dogs of War”, the Founders retreat to a planet in the Omarion nebula. It marks the formal founding of the Dominion in the Gamma Quadrant, but in DS9 “To the Death” the Dominion has endured for 2,000 years, suggesting a much later start to a policy of expansion?

10,000 years before DS9 “Little Green Men”, the Ferengi are at approximately the same level of development as humans were when they first discovered currency.

-7500
The approximate time when farming spread worldwide from its beginnings in the Fertile Crescent.

“Over nine millenia” ago

The Zakdorns get their reputation as master strategists, according to TNG “Peak Performance”.

Start of the Bajoran Era

Oneday, 1st Leaponemonth, 1 B.E.; Sunday 29th May, -6232

The start of the Bajoran Calendar era, assuming there have been no major reforms since it began. This is complete speculation, loosely based on DS9 “Accession”. It’s possible that it commemorates the discovery of an Orb, but it seems quite a bit too late to have been the first one.

Approximately -6000
A landslide on the Sicilian coast sends a devastating tsunami through the eastern Mediterranean.

Horses are first domesticated on the western Eurasian Steppe.

Approximately -5650
Rising sea levels at the end of the last ice age allowed the Mediterranean to break into the Black Sea, causing massive flooding and turning what had been a freshwater lake into a sea.

Approximately -5500
Farming spreads into central Europe. Recent studies seem to show that in this region, the farmers supplanted rather than intermixed with the earlier hunter-gatherers.

Approximately -4740

The Amusement Park planet seen in TOS “Shore Leave” is set up, assuming that the years are approximately the same length as Earth’s; if you accept that TAS “Once upon a Planet” establishes that the Caretaker dies in the 7009th year of the planet’s existence. I’m including it as a possibility, although the cartoons aren’t part of my main timeline.

Approximately -4000

6,000 years before TOS “Return of the Archons”, Landru activates his computer, creating a “perfect” society. At least, that’s the best guess of the people living on the planet.

A group of humans are taken to a mysterious alien planet, approximately 6,000 years before TOS “Assignment: Earth”. Their descendants will be used as agents, guiding humanity along the right path.

The very earliest cities are founded in Sumeria. Early astronomers began to map the heavens, creating constellations which are still the basis of the astrological and astronomical zodiac today.

-3833

Akharin the soldier is born in ancient Mesopotamia. Some years later, he recovers from a fatal wound and realises he’s immortal. Flint gives the date of 3834 B.C. in TOS “Requiem for Methuselah”. See Flint: Immortal Genius, or Completely Barking Mad? for my comments about all this, if the title hasn’t given it away for you.

“Millennia ago”

The Kalandan Empire is destroyed by disease, despite its high level of technological development, a “few thousand” years before TOS “That Which Survives”.

It’s “millennia” before TOS “Plato’s Stepchildren” that the star Sahndara becomes a nova. It destroys the Platonians’ home planet, and they make their way to Earth, arriving at the time of Plato and Socrates.

Several thousand years before TNG “Symbiosis”, two planets in the Delos star system begin to follow diverging paths. Ornara develops a technological civilisation, but Brekka doesn’t.

“Many thousands” of years before TNG “The Survivors”, the Douwd energy being that eventually assumes the human identity of Kevin Uxbridge first arrives in this galaxy.

It’s “millennia” since the living spacecraft Gomtuu saw another of its kind, according to TNG “Tin Man”.

The Trill begin to live symbiotically as host and parasite “millennia” before TNG “The Host”.

Around -3400
Writing is invented on Earth.

מְתוּשָׁלַח, Methuselah

687 to 11 Cheshvan, 1656 A.M.; -3074 to 3 October, -2105
Flint claims to have actually been Methuselah in TOS “Requiem for Methuselah”. This would certainly go a long way towards explaining the Patriarch’s enormous lifespan of 969 years. He’s reputed to have died in the year of the Flood, although not necessarily as a result of it. There are lots of other dates for the Flood, and therefore for Methuselah. The ones I’ve used here reflect traditional Jewish legends. See also Flint: Immortal Genius, or Completely Barking Mad?

Approximately -3000
King Narmer unifies Egypt and founds the First Dynasty.

The best guess as to the time of the invention of the chariot, in Mesopotamia. It was not until around -2000 that chariots became an effective weapon of war. The earlier ones were more like wagons, with four wheels and drawn by asses or oxen rather than horses.

Very roughly 4700 V.E.; around -2700

5,000 years ago, Vulcans begin trying to suppress their emotions, and control their mental abilities, according to VOY “Random Thoughts”. Propaganda about the Vulcan primal nature is written, according to ENT “Fusion”. The majority of Vulcans remain primitive and savage, though, judging by Spock’s comments about the Vulcan of 5,000 years before in TOS “All Our Yesterdays”.

The planet Sarpeidon undergoes an Ice Age, 5,000 years before TOS “All Our Yesterdays”.

Approximately -2600

5,000 years before DS9 “Little Green Men” (August 2372), Humans develop currency, according to Nog’s book. As far as I can tell, it seems to agree with current opinions.

King Djoser
Approximately -2630 to around -2610
Reign of King Djoser of Egypt, who was entombed in the first pyramid.

Approximately -2560

The construction of the Great Pyramid at Giza is completed, according to current understanding. The event is observed by historians from 2769, according to ENT “Cold Front”. Today, it’s the only one of the seven wonders of the ancient world still standing, and is presumably an unseen part of Neelix’s answer about the seven wonders in VOY “11:59”.

Gilgamesh
Approximately -2500
A famous and possibly legendary king of Uruk, given the traditional 126 year length of his reign. Captain Picard begins to tell his story to Darmok, in TNG “Darmok”.

Approximately -2300
Estimated date of the impact of a huge meteorite in present-day southern Iraq. At the time, it was the northern part of the Persian Gulf. The collapse of civilisations in Mesopotamia and Egypt might be linked to this.

Around -2250

Extraterrestrials from Pollux IV amuse themselves by taking on the roles of the Greek gods, according to TOS “Who Mourns for Adonais?” I’ve assumed that it happens around the time of the first settling of the ancient Greeks in the Greek peninsula. Apollo himself says 5,000 years, which is about right. Bizarrely, some ancient and early Christian Greek scholars included the gods in Greek history, and placed the birth of Apollo somewhere around -1673. I’ve stuck with the on-screen reference, although the “gods” could have hung around for centuries, if not millennia, especially since Apollo knows the names of Homeric heroes. The death of the god Pan was announced during the reign of the Roman emperor Tiberius, and that could mean that the “gods” left Earth in the early part of the first century. Apollo himself claims that his mother was an Earth woman, but that gets us into the genealogy of the Greek gods. The myths say that Apollo’s mum was a Titan called Leto, not a mortal.
Comment: My own firm belief is that there’s no way the events of history can be reconciled with a gang of immortal spacemen actually living on top of Mount Olympus.

-2230
Traditional date for the founding of the city of Babylon.

Before -1850

Hoshi guesses that the ruins on the planet in ENT “Vanishing Point” (August 2152) are over 4,000 years old.

Xindi-Avians construct a fort that will eventually be used as the meeting place for the Xindi Council. Xindi archaeologists guess its age at over 4,000 years, according to ENT “The Council”.

Approximately -1760
The Code of Hammurabi is written. Samuel Cogley refers to it in TOS “Court Martial”.

“Forty centuries ago”

Humans are glorifying organised violence, according to Mister Spock, in TOS “Dagger of the Mind”.

-1627
The volcanic island of Thera erupts spectacularly, possibly inspiring the myth of Atlantis. The date still could be open to considerable modification. This one is the date fixed by dendrochronology, ice cores and carbon-fourteen analysis. Archaeologists and historians prefer a date around a hundred years later, around -1550, and the most recent discoveries mean there could be even more of a gap between the two groups.

Approximately -1600
The rise of the Olmec or “rubber” people in Mesoamerica. They were the earliest of the Central American civilisations, and it is possible that the “Rubber Tree People” in VOY “Tattoo” are something to do with the Olmec.
Comment: Personally, I think the “Rubber Tree People” are complete nonsense. The whole thing becomes even more complicated if you try to fit Kukulkan from TAS “How Sharper than A Serpent’s Tooth” into the mix.

מֹשֶׁה, Moses
7 Adar 2368 to 7 Adar 2488, A.M.; Thursday 18th February, -1392 to Sunday 12th February, -1272
Attempts to guess accurately when Moses lived, if he’s a historical figure at all, range centuries before and after these dates. Flint claims to have met Moses in TOS “Requiem for Methuselah”. See also Flint: Immortal Genius, or Completely Barking Mad? Samuel Cogley refers to Moses as the earliest source of law in TOS “Court Martial”.

Passover
14 Nisan 2448 A.M.; Monday 12th March, -1312
The first-born of Egypt die in the tenth of the Plagues, and the Exodus begins soon after, according to Jewish tradition.

Ramesses II
Saturday 20th May, -1278 to -1212
Spock includes him in his list of tyrants in TOS “Patterns of Force”.

Approximately -1200
The most popular scholarly guess for the time Zoroaster lived.

Also around now, just before the Trojan War, Hercules is said to have died. He’s mentioned by name by Apollo in TOS “Who Mourns for Adonais?”

Fall of Troy
Wednesday 31st May, -1183
Traditional date for the fall of Troy. Several of the more prominent figures of the Trojan War are mentioned by Apollo in TOS “Who Mourns for Adonais?”

Around -1100

The forging of iron becomes widespread, during the Greek Dark Age. In TOS “A Private Little War”, Uhura says there were 12 centuries on Earth between the forging of iron and the development of firearms. I have to say, it seems more like 20 centuries to me.

שְׁלֹמֹה, Solomon

2795 to 2829, A.M.; -965 to -931
Flint claims to have been Solomon, TOS “Requiem for Methuselah”. See Flint: Immortal Genius, or Completely Barking Mad?

Approximately 6200 V.E.; around -840

Almost three thousand years before ENT “The Andorian Incident” (June 2151), the Vulcans establish a monastery on P’Jem, which means that the Vulcans must have been capable of interstellar travel. One of the founders is Master Haadok.

Foundation of Rome
ante diem XI kalendas Maius I A.U.C.; Tuesday 21st April, -752
This is the traditional date. The city of Rome was definitely founded at some point, but the details owe more to legend than history.

Very, very approximately -750
The best guess by scholars as to the date of the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. Traditionally, they are considered the work of a single writer, Homer. The works of Homer have been preserved ever since as “living” literature. Familiarity with the stories of Troy and Ulysses are considered important even today, and attempts to uncover the “truth” behind them have been fairly continuous ever since Heinrich Schliemann carved his way down to the bottom of a site long traditionally connected with the city of Troy. He unfortunately obliterated a lot of what he was really looking for, always assuming that the Roman “remodelling” of the city hadn’t destroyed the remains of King Priam’s stronghold long beforehand. Schliemann is often dismissed as a bungler, but he was effectively inventing a whole new science. His sources were very limited, being Homer’s accounts and the unassailable accuracy of the Bible. Naturally he had to go right down to the bottom levels, because it had to be fairly soon after the Flood, and there was no evidence that the city had been destroyed by the Deluge during its lifetime. According to the best evidence he had available, Schliemann was bang on target. His work still forms the underlying basis of our modern understanding of the early Greek world. Compared to the “antiquaries” who’d spent the previous couple of centuries mindlessly vandalising important sites looking for “curiosities,” Schliemann was the first archaeologist, and genuinely deserves the title. There. Rant finished. I wonder if I’ll leave it in? Rasmussen cites Homer as one of a whole list of “blind geniuses” in TNG “A Matter of Time”.

Death of Romulus
Nones Iunius, XXXVIII A.U.C.; Saturday 16th June, -715
According to legend, Romulus, the founder and first king of Rome, didn’t die. A mysterious cloud enveloped the throne, and when it cleared he was gone. Reading about this put me in mind of transporter beams, especially the one used in TOS “Assignment: Earth”. It was also particularly interesting because I thought of the “Roman Empire” planet in TOS “Bread and Circuses”. Was Romulus abducted by aliens? Of course, Roman historians suggested that the quaint story of a miraculous vanishing in a storm was designed to disguise the reality: Romulus was murdered by the Senate. The date is highly questionable, since it’s based on tradition rather than facts.

Very, very approximately -650
Sometime around now, the earliest of a whole series of anonymous Greek authors begin to compose hymns to the gods, in the style of the Homeric epics. Eventually they were collected into a single work, the “Homeric Hymns”. Captain Picard decides to brush up on them in the original Greek after meeting the Children of Tamar in TNG “Darmok”.

Before 6121 B.E.; before -629

Over three thousand years before DS9 “Destiny” (December 2371), the Orb of Change is first seen by the Bajoran prophet Trakor, who makes his third prophecy.

Buddha
Ravivara, 16 Jyaishtha 2478 to Mangalavara, 16 Jyaishtha 2558 K.Y.; Sunday 18th May, -623 to Tuesday 5th May, -543
These are the traditional dates. Modern opinion suggests that the Buddha was born around -560, putting him a century later.

Approximately 3168 to 3348, A.M.; Approximately -592 to around -412
A series of prophecies by Ezekiel (יחזקאל). Some observers have discerned accounts of encounters with spacecraft and astronauts in his story. Others attach a more allegorical “calendar beast” explanation to his accounts of multi-faced, multi-winged wheeled creatures.
Comment: The Bible is undoubtedly a real book, but the factual accuracy of the Book of Ezekiel, or any other part of the Bible, is something I leave to the preferences of the individual reader. There is a marked lack of evidence for contact with extra-terrestrials at any point in human history as far as I can see, but that hasn’t stopped “Star Trek”.

Approximately -560
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon are constructed on the orders of Nebuchadnezzar II, and are classed as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Neelix must have already mentioned them in his list of the wonders by the time we see him in VOY “11:59”.

Approximately -550
The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus constructed, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. It’s part of the answer given by Neelix in VOY “11:59”.

孔夫子, Confucius
Cycle 35, year Geng-xu, month 7 day 19 to Cycle 36, year Ren-xu, month 10 day 2; Wednesday 21st August, -550 to Thursday 16th November, -478

孫子, Sun Tzu
Approximately -543 to around -495
Chinese general and author of “The Art of War”, 孫子兵法. He’s mentioned in TNG “The Last Outpost” and ENT “Divergence”.

-6th century
The best current guess as to when the books of the Old Testament became the Jewish Scriptures, and the foundation of the modern Bible. Samuel Cogley mentions them as a source of law in TOS “Court Martial”.

Μάχη τοῡ Μαραθῶνος , Battle of Marathon
5 Bœdromion, 3rd year of the 72nd Olympiad; Saturday 23rd or Sunday 24th September, -489

Μάχη τοῡ Θερμοπύλαι , Battle of Thermopylæ
3 to 5 Metageitnion, 1st year of the 75th Olympiad; Tuesday 2nd to Thursday 4th August, -479
Referred to in DS9 “What You Leave Behind”.

Σοφοκλῆς, Sophocles
Approximately -494 to around -404
Captain Drennik starts reading his plays in ENT “Cogenitor”. Icheb quotes “Oedipus Rex” in VOY “Human Error”.

Περικλῆς, Pericles
Approximately -495 to Autumn -428
Captain Kirk is presented with a shield that allegedly belonged to him in TOS “Plato’s Stepchildren”.

-434
The date of the statue of Zeus at Olympia. At 40 feet tall, it was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. I’m assuming Neelix mentioned it, but we didn’t see him do it in VOY “11:59”.

Σωκράτης, Socrates
10 Thargelion, 4th year of the 77th Olympiad to 1 Anthesterion, 1st year of the 95th Olympiad; Wednesday 31st May, -468 to Sunday 10th February, -398
Flint claims to have met him, TOS “Requiem for Methuselah”. See also Flint: Immortal Genius, or Completely Barking Mad? The EMH also mentions him in VOY “Darkling”.

Ἱπποκράτης, Hippocrates
Approximately -460 to around -370
Doctor McCoy is presented with a scroll allegedly written by him, TOS “Plato’s Stepchildren”. The EMH paraphrases the Hippocratic Oath at the end of VOY “Darkling”.

Approximately -400

The Platonians arrive on Earth at the time of Socrates and Plato, according to TOS “Plato’s Stepchildren”.

Πλάτων, Plato
14 Thargelion, 2nd year of the 88th Olympiad to 3 Anthesterion, 1st year of the 108th Olympiad; Thursday 21st May, -426 to Friday 9th January, -346
During the middle period of his working life, he wrote the “Republic”, “Πολιτεία” which greatly influenced a group of aliens who visited Earth at around this time, TOS “Plato’s Stepchildren”.

It’s also thanks to Plato that we have the story of Atlantis. Commander Riker mentions Atlantis in TNG “When the Bough Breaks”.

Πραξιτέλης, Praxitiles
Approximately -400 to around -330
He’s mentioned in VOY “The Killing Game, Part I”.


Overview
Ancient History

by StrauchiusStrauchius on 05 Dec 2010 20:38, last updated on 14 Jun 2017 07:43